Shaoxing Xinshan Science Technology Co.,Ltd
Address: Dongfangyimai, No. 2, Pujiang Road, Shaoxing, China
The LED chip.
LED is at the heart of the LED chip, pictured above is a Taiwan wafer 35 mil chip grain figure (production), 35 mil is chip side, about equal to 0.889 mm.
The LED chip is the core of the LED lamps and lanterns, is also the most key quality of LED lights. In general chip level down in this order (reference another answer) Europe and the United States, chip > > South Korea chip > > Taiwan chip > > domestic chip, good chip several advantages as follows:
1. High photosynthetic efficiency, 1 w power consumption is 130 lm light good, 1 w power consumption only 60 lm light is bad, because according to the law of conservation of energy to remove light energy, used in the other energy is used for heating.
2. Low light failure, the LED chip will inevitably in the process of light aging, and droop, general lamps and lanterns use after a period of time will certainly than just started a bit dark, low light failure can ensure a longer life expectancy
3. The barrier to higher temperature, the LED light failure is along with the rising of the temperature gradually increased, once had LED internal temperature more than enchantment, droop here has soared way worse. Too lazy to check information, I remember the CREE chip enchantment temperature can reach 120 degrees, the Taiwan factory is generally 80 degrees.
High photosynthetic efficiency reduces fever, fever can reduce droop, the barrier to higher temperature and lower requirements for radiator. Choose high-grade chip is good LED lamps and lanterns is the first step. But you can't buy a treasure above the CREE chip of lamps and lanterns, because it is too expensive, also gap between 10-100 times the size of the chip, make the finished product gap is bigger. Chip is a high-tech high input of live, European and American manufacturers with CREE, philips, osram, puri, Japan and South Korea Japan, samsung, and domestic three Ann, wally, and many other manufacturers, domestic chip in three Ann photoelectric better again.
LED chip is quite small, 1 mm all have no, can't welded on the circuit board directly, and come into contact with the air will quickly under high temperature oxidation scrap. So we need to put the LED chip packaging on a suitable support, for our processing.
This is the classic imitation lumens lamp bead encapsulation. The lamp bead is divided into four parts, bracket, chip, wire, phosphor powder. Other encapsulation structure of lamp bead basically also contains the four parts.
1. Support us that less than 1 mm of the chip is in the middle of the the support that position. The ends of the bracket is "-" side, the side is "+", it is connected with an external circuit of the interface. Bracket is carrying the chip shelves, and is responsible for chip heat conduction, and connecting with the external circuit chip. Stents, there are three kinds of conventional material: iron, brass, copper, ceramic, aluminium, according to the function of the stent, we can think of the best material thermal conductive performance is the best possible support material, copper is pure copper, heat conduction performance is the best, is also the most expensive, brass is copper zinc alloy thermal conductivity, iron is the worst. Ceramic and aluminum are commonly used to encapsulate COB lamp bead, COB lamp bead is a lot of single chip packaging on a bracket. Ceramic and aluminum heat dissipation performance contrast, didn't go to understand, because with less. Scaffold material quality is mainly decided, the domestic technology is more mature.
2. The chip has been mentioned above
3. The cable
Chip is four points, two dot points, need wires connect the four point and support. Join point is very small, requires a very fine wires, but also can carry a lot of electric current. Generally there are three kinds of material, gold wire, alloy wire, copper wire, gold has the very good ductility and stability, is the best material, alloy wire is silver gold alloy performance times, copper wire is the worst. In recent years launched a flip chip can save the cable structure.
4. The phosphor
Used for lighting of the LED chip now basically is to use hair blue chip, through the yellow phosphor, emit white light. Phosphors with glue mixing, and then drop to the surface of a chip, chip packaging good after solidification. Good glue is the U.S. dow corning, compared to the domestic poor glue your one thousand times, domestic also have good, don't understand this market. Poor phosphors, was going to be easy sulphur black, fade, expansion make gold wire welding, good phosphors have good stability.
Packaging line for hundreds of thousands of you can buy a cheap, second-hand equipment is cheaper, so there are so many domestic assembly house, good and bad are intermingled, generally speaking, there are the size of the factory will choose two or three stable assembly house to suppliers. Like I used to the small factory, just changed a lot of suppliers, quality is not stable. Tomlinson, a light is more domestic assembly house. CREE, chip manufacturers such as philips, osram, Japan and many have their own assembly house.
Encapsulation has a lot of specifications, with more 5050, 2835, 5730, imitation lumens, imitation sharp, citizen, CREE, packaging standard is all other people, so to speak.
3. The power supply
Single star LED are generally 2.5 3.5 V dc voltage driver, and our mains are ac 220 V, it needs a transformer, the transformer is called the power industry. Power is divided into constant voltage source and constant current source, resistance RongYuan, most of the LED lamps and lanterns with constant current source, only low voltage LED lamp belt with a constant voltage source. Domestic production of the lowest resistance RongYuan commonly used LED lights, production of major international companies LED lights also USES resistance RongYuan, but somebody else do the quality lever, this I haven't studied. Many factors deciding a power of life, but the domestic power plant the power to do life depends on the life of the capacitor, and the life of the capacitor and depends on the temperature.
Power production is quite simple, by the power management chip manufacturers provide solutions, and then do PCB buy accessories according to the plan, it is ok to assemble, they even don't know a bit about principle. So a lot of cottage industry factories can be mass production power. MingWei is a well-known domestic power plant, the boss is Taiwanese, industrial power, is one of the old brand, but the power supply is a vulnerability, original MingWei that would be great.
4. The radiator and the shell
LED light source than black silk lamp lighting is much higher, but the LED does not transform electric energy into light energy 100%, there are quite a number of electrical energy into heat energy. Above the life of the LED chip with temperature, the radiator and the shell is to determine the LED finished product lamp temperature is the most important part. LED heat sink and the shell form a lot, the cooling method is also very much. Made of aluminum, ceramics, plastics, air cooling means has increased contact area, diversion, air-cooled, water-cooled, phase transformation.
5. The light color
Light color has several parameters, color temperature, refers to, XY coordinates, spectrum, and actually the fact whether the LED lamps and lanterns lamp and energy-saving lamp and incandescent lamp has the light color parameters. We call 2700-3200 k color temperature warm white (such as incandescent lighting), 4000-4500 k for natural white (like the sun), 6000-6500 k for cold white (light as the light tube). Refers to, show that high of color reduction, truth color sunlight as reference, with very few to the family have asked, the lamps and lanterns of a treasure above many profiteers or claim they show that high, actually there is no comparison instrument is difficult to judge our naked eye. X, y coordinates, and spectral home users more don't pay any attention.
The advantage of LED light emitting diode is that it can directly convert electrical energy into light energy. In the process of light, more than 99% of the energy is converted to light energy. Single from the luminous efficiency comparison: incandescent lights in 10 to 15 lumens per watt, halogen tungsten lighting effect for 12 to 24 lumens per watt, 50-90 lumens/watt fluorescent lamp, sodium lamp, 90-140 lumens per watt, compared with the LED luminous efficiency can reach 50-200 lumens per watt. We can have a look at the simple incandescent lamp, energy-saving lamps, LED lamp energy consumption contrast:
Under the condition of same illumination, LED the power consumption is one over ten of the incandescent lamp, fluorescent tubes. And the LED light good monochromaticity, narrow spectrum, without filtering, can be directly emit colored visible light. These advantages make the need to have a place of consumption without having to filter light source brightness, greatly reducing the waste of energy, and more convenient.
Global lighting electricity accounted for 19% of the total amount of lighting in China accounted for about 13% of the whole social power consumption. If all the nationwide in 1.4 billion incandescent replaced with energy-saving lamps, can power saving 48 billion kilowatt hours a year, equivalent to reduce carbon dioxide emissions of 48 million tons per year.
Leds have many advantages, such as recyclability. LED the main structure is a PN section
Compared to other bulbs, simple in structure, convenient in recycling more
And transportation advantages, leds are not afraid to fail, other lights are all outside a layer of glass, the LED is resin, high transport efficiency (lined) are not afraid of shock (direct throw the box without cushion foam)
Advantage, of course, there are many, but the technology is also a barrier, the scale of production also can't keep up with, LED lights prices can see out. LED lighting is a big drawback, is cooling, cooling do bad, ensure the LED super short service life. Small power LED heat dissipation is relatively mature, high power to choose.
In general, if the home decorate new bought a bit of leds or cost-effective, don't buy bad, use it broke it won't pay more.